Explore Scientific Method and Analysis (SMA) WAYS Courses

Ways of Thinking/Ways of Doing

Title Requirements
BIO 153
Cellular Neuroscience: Cell Signaling and Behavior (PSYCH 120)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Neural interactions underlying behavior. Prerequisites: PSYCH 1 or basic biology.

BIO 155
Cell and Developmental Biology of Plants (BIO 255)
WAY-SMA

In this course we will learn how plants are built at different organizational scales from the cell, tissue, organ and organ system level. We will also learn about the experimental methods used to study plants at these different organizational levels and how to interpret and evaluate experiments that use such methods. Broadly relevant skills that will be cultivated in the course include: evaluating primarily literature, identifying gaps in knowledge, formulating research questions and designing new experimental strategies. Prerequisites: BIO 80 series

BIO 158
Developmental Neurobiology (BIO 258)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

For advanced undergraduates and coterminal students. The principles of nervous system development from the molecular control of patterning, cell-cell interactions, and trophic factors to the level of neural systems and the role of experience in influencing brain structure and function. Topics: neural induction and patterning cell lineage, neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axonal pathfinding, synapse elimination, the role of activity, critical periods, and the development of behavior. Satisfies Central Menu Areas 2 or 3. Prerequisite: BIO 42 or BIO 82, 83, 84, 86.

BIO 161
Organismal Biology Lab
WAY-SMA

This laboratory is a genuine research experience course where students will contribute to original research in a field of organismal biology. The course will consist of two modules: In the first module, students will perform a drug screen for novel compounds that influence animal behavior. In the second module, students will use gene editing technologies to test the role of specific proteins involved in mental diseases. Students will work collaboratively to collect and analyze data and will learn to communicate their findings clearly through oral and written formats. Prerequisites: BIO 82 or BIO 84 required or concurrent.

BIO 174
Human Skeletal Anatomy (ANTHRO 175, ANTHRO 275, BIO 274, HUMBIO 180)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Study of the human skeleton (a. k. a. human osteology), as it bears on other disciplines, including medicine, forensics, archaeology, and paleoanthropology (human evolution). Basic bone biology, anatomy, and development, emphasizing hands-on examination and identification of human skeletal parts, their implications for determining an individual¿s age, sex, geographic origin, and health status, and for the evolutionary history of our species. Three hours of lecture and at least three hours of supervised and independent study in the lab each week.

BIO 174
Human Skeletal Anatomy (ANTHRO 175, ANTHRO 275, BIO 274, HUMBIO 180)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Study of the human skeleton (a. k. a. human osteology), as it bears on other disciplines, including medicine, forensics, archaeology, and paleoanthropology (human evolution). Basic bone biology, anatomy, and development, emphasizing hands-on examination and identification of human skeletal parts, their implications for determining an individual¿s age, sex, geographic origin, and health status, and for the evolutionary history of our species. Three hours of lecture and at least three hours of supervised and independent study in the lab each week.

BIO 174
Human Skeletal Anatomy (ANTHRO 175, ANTHRO 275, BIO 274, HUMBIO 180)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Study of the human skeleton (a. k. a. human osteology), as it bears on other disciplines, including medicine, forensics, archaeology, and paleoanthropology (human evolution). Basic bone biology, anatomy, and development, emphasizing hands-on examination and identification of human skeletal parts, their implications for determining an individual¿s age, sex, geographic origin, and health status, and for the evolutionary history of our species. Three hours of lecture and at least three hours of supervised and independent study in the lab each week.

BIO 183
Theoretical Population Genetics (BIO 283)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Models in population genetics and evolution. Selection, random drift, gene linkage, migration, and inbreeding, and their influence on the evolution of gene frequencies and chromosome structure. Models are related to DNA sequence evolution. Prerequisites: calculus and linear algebra, or consent of instructor.

BIO 183
Theoretical Population Genetics (BIO 283)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Models in population genetics and evolution. Selection, random drift, gene linkage, migration, and inbreeding, and their influence on the evolution of gene frequencies and chromosome structure. Models are related to DNA sequence evolution. Prerequisites: calculus and linear algebra, or consent of instructor.

BIO 25Q
Cystic fibrosis: from medical conundrum to precision medicine success story
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

The class will explore cystic fibrosis (CF), the most prevalent fatal genetic disease in the US, as a scientific and medical whodunit. Through reading and discussion of medical and scientific literature, we will tackle questions that include: how was life expectancy with CF increased from weeks to decades without understanding the disease mechanism? Why is the disease so prevalent? Is there an advantage to being a carrier? Is CF a single disease or a continuum of physiological variation ¿or- what is a disease? How did research into CF lead to discovery of the underlying cause of most other genetic diseases as well?nnThrough critical reading of the scientific and medical literature, class discussion, field trips and meetings with genetic counselors, caregivers, patients, physicians and researchers, we will work to build a deep understanding of this disease, from the biochemical basis to the current controversies over pathogenic mechanisms, treatment strategies and the ethics and economics of genetic testing and astronomical drug costs.

BIO 25Q
Cystic fibrosis: from medical conundrum to precision medicine success story
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Preference to sophomores. The class will explore cystic fibrosis (CF), the most prevalent fatal genetic disease in the US, as a scientific and medical whodunit. Through reading and discussion of medical and scientific literature, we will tackle questions that include: how was life expectancy with CF increased from weeks to decades without understanding the disease mechanism? Why is the disease so prevalent? Is there an advantage to being a carrier? Is CF a single disease or a continuum of physiological variation ¿or- what is a disease? How did research into CF lead to discovery of the underlying cause of most other genetic diseases as well?nnThrough critical reading of the scientific and medical literature, class discussion, field trips and meetings with genetic counselors, caregivers, patients, physicians and researchers, we will work to build a deep understanding of this disease, from the biochemical basis to the current controversies over pathogenic mechanisms, treatment strategies and the ethics and economics of genetic testing and astronomical drug costs.

BIO 2N
Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Disease in a Changing World
WAY-SMA

This seminar will explore the ways in which anthropogenic change, climate change, habitat destruction, land use change, and species invasions effects the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases. Topics will include infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, livestock, and crops, effects of disease on threatened species, disease spillover, emerging diseases, and the role of disease in natural systems. Course will be taught through a combination of popular and scientific readings, discussion, and lecture. .

BIO 30
Ecology for Everyone
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Everything is connected, but how? Ecology is the science of interactions and the changes they generate. This project-based course links individual behavior, population growth, species interactions, and ecosystem function. Introduction to measurement, observation, experimental design and hypothesis testing in field projects, mostly done in groups. The goal is to learn to think analytically about everyday ecological processes involving bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. The course uses basic statistics to analyze data; there are no math prerequisites except arithmetic. Open to everyone, including those who may be headed for more advanced courses in ecology and environmental science.

BIO 30
Ecology for Everyone
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Everything is connected, but how? Ecology is the science of interactions and the changes they generate. This project-based course links individual behavior, population growth, species interactions, and ecosystem function. Introduction to measurement, observation, experimental design and hypothesis testing in field projects, mostly done in groups. The goal is to learn to think analytically about everyday ecological processes involving bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. The course uses basic statistics to analyze data; there are no math prerequisites except arithmetic. Open to everyone, including those who may be headed for more advanced courses in ecology and environmental science.

BIO 30
Ecology for Everyone
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Everything is connected, but how? Ecology is the science of interactions and the changes they generate. This project-based course links individual behavior, population growth, species interactions, and ecosystem function. Introduction to measurement, observation, experimental design and hypothesis testing in field projects, mostly done in groups. The goal is to learn to think analytically about everyday ecological processes involving bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. The course uses basic statistics to analyze data; there are no math prerequisites except arithmetic. Open to everyone, including those who may be headed for more advanced courses in ecology and environmental science.

BIO 30
Ecology for Everyone
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Everything is connected, but how? Ecology is the science of interactions and the changes they generate. This project-based course links individual behavior, population growth, species interactions, and ecosystem function. Introduction to measurement, observation, experimental design and hypothesis testing in field projects, mostly done in groups. The goal is to learn to think analytically about everyday ecological processes involving bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. The course uses basic statistics to analyze data; there are no math prerequisites except arithmetic. Open to everyone, including those who may be headed for more advanced courses in ecology and environmental science.

BIO 32Q
Neuroethology: The Neural Control of Behavior (HUMBIO 91Q)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Preference to sophomores. Animal behavior offers insights about evolutionary adaptations and this seminar will discuss the origins of the study of animal behavior and its development to the present. How does the nervous system control behavior and how is it changed by behavior? We will analyze and discuss original research papers about the neural basis of behavior. The use and misuse of parallels between animal and human behavior. Possible field trip to observe animals in their natural habitat.

BIO 35N
Climate change ecology: Is it too late?
WAY-SMA

This Introductory Seminar will explore the consequences of climate change on ecological communities, focusing on two emerging concepts: "disequilibrium," which emphasizes that it can take long time for communities to respond to climate change because of species interactions, and "historical contingency," which proposes that the order in which species invade and disappear as communities re-assemble in response to climate change will determine which species will persist. The seminar will involve lecture, discussion, writing, and visit to Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve.

BIO 35N
Climate change ecology: Is it too late?
WAY-SMA

This Introductory Seminar will explore the consequences of climate change on ecological communities, focusing on two emerging concepts: "disequilibrium," which emphasizes that it can take long time for communities to respond to climate change because of species interactions, and "historical contingency," which proposes that the order in which species invade and disappear as communities re-assemble in response to climate change will determine which species will persist. The seminar will involve lecture, discussion, writing, and visit to Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve.

BIO 35N
Climate change ecology: Is it too late?
WAY-SMA

This Introductory Seminar will explore the consequences of climate change on ecological communities, focusing on two emerging concepts: "disequilibrium," which emphasizes that it can take long time for communities to respond to climate change because of species interactions, and "historical contingency," which proposes that the order in which species invade and disappear as communities re-assemble in response to climate change will determine which species will persist. The seminar will involve lecture, discussion, writing, and visit to Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve.

BIO 45
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology
WAY-SMA

Investigate yeast strains that are engineered to express the human tumor suppressor protein, p53, and use modern molecular methods to identify the functional consequences of p53 mutations isolated from tumor cells. Learn about the protein's role as Guardian of the Genome through lectures and by reading and discussing journal articles. Use molecular visualization programs to examine the structure of normal and mutant p53 proteins. Assay the ability of mutant p53 to direct expression of several reporter genes. During guided reflection, investigate further and identify what could be wrong with the p53 mutants you have been studying. Conduct lab experiments to test hypotheses, analyze data, and present your findings through a team oral presentation, as well as a scientific poster. There are no pre-requisites for this course. However, having taken CHEM 31X, or 31A and B, and 33 and being concurrently enrolled or past enrollment in Biology or Human Biology core will help. Note: This class has a $25 course fee.

BIO 45
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology
WAY-SMA

Investigate yeast strains that are engineered to express the human tumor suppressor protein, p53, and use modern molecular methods to identify the functional consequences of p53 mutations isolated from tumor cells. Learn about the protein's role as Guardian of the Genome through lectures and by reading and discussing journal articles. Use molecular visualization programs to examine the structure of normal and mutant p53 proteins. Assay the ability of mutant p53 to direct expression of several reporter genes. During guided reflection, investigate further and identify what could be wrong with the p53 mutants you have been studying. Conduct lab experiments to test hypotheses, analyze data, and present your findings through a team oral presentation, as well as a scientific poster. Although there are no pre-requisites to enroll in this class, having taken CHEM 31X, or 31A and B, and 33 and being concurrently enrolled or past enrollment in appropriate Biology Foundation classes or HumBio core classes is recommended. Note: This class has a $25 course fee.

BIO 45
Introduction to Laboratory Research in Cell and Molecular Biology
WAY-SMA

Investigate yeast strains that are engineered to express the human tumor suppressor protein, p53, and use modern molecular methods to identify the functional consequences of p53 mutations isolated from tumor cells. Learn about the protein's role as Guardian of the Genome through lectures and by reading and discussing journal articles. Use molecular visualization programs to examine the structure of normal and mutant p53 proteins. Assay the ability of mutant p53 to direct expression of several reporter genes. During guided reflection, investigate further and identify what could be wrong with the p53 mutants you have been studying. Conduct lab experiments to test hypotheses, analyze data, and present your findings through a team oral presentation, as well as a scientific poster. Although there are no pre-requisites to enroll in this class, having taken CHEM 31X, or 31A and B, and 33 and being concurrently enrolled or past enrollment in appropriate Biology Foundation classes or HumBio core classes is recommended. Note: This class has a $25 course fee.

BIO 46
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
WAY-SMA

The goal of this course is to develop an understanding of how to conduct biological research, using a topic in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Plant Biology as a practical example. This includes the complete scientific process: assessing background literature, generating testable hypotheses, learning techniques for field- and lab-based data collection, analyzing data using appropriate statistical methods, and writing and sharing results. To build these skills, this course focuses on the microorganisms associated with lichen epiphytes. Students, working in teams, develop novel research hypotheses and execute the necessary experiments and measurements to test these hypotheses. In addition, students will learn how to manipulate, visualize and analyze data in R. The capstone of the course is an oral defense of students' findings, as well as a research paper in the style of a peer-reviewed journal article. Labs are completed both on campus and at Jasper Ridge. Lab fee. Information about this class is available at http://bio44.stanford.edu. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 46
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
WAY-SMA

The goal of this course is to develop an understanding of how to conduct biological research, using a topic in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Plant Biology as a practical example. This includes the complete scientific process: assessing background literature, generating testable hypotheses, learning techniques for field- and lab-based data collection, analyzing data using appropriate statistical methods, and writing and sharing results. To build these skills, this course focuses on the microorganisms associated with lichen epiphytes. Students, working in teams, develop novel research hypotheses and execute the necessary experiments and measurements to test these hypotheses. In addition, students will learn how to manipulate, visualize and analyze data in R. The capstone of the course is an oral defense of students' findings, as well as a research paper in the style of a peer-reviewed journal article. Labs are completed both on campus and at Jasper Ridge. Lab fee. Information about this class is available at http://bio44.stanford.edu. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 46
Introduction to Research in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
WAY-SMA

The goal of this course is to develop an understanding of how to conduct biological research, using a topic in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology, and Plant Biology as a practical example. This includes the complete scientific process: assessing background literature, generating testable hypotheses, learning techniques for field- and lab-based data collection, analyzing data using appropriate statistical methods, and writing and sharing results. To build these skills, this course focuses on the microorganisms associated with lichen epiphytes. Students, working in teams, develop novel research hypotheses and execute the necessary experiments and measurements to test these hypotheses. In addition, students will learn how to manipulate, visualize and analyze data in R. The capstone of the course is an oral defense of students' findings, as well as a research paper in the style of a peer-reviewed journal article. Labs are completed both on campus and at Jasper Ridge. Lab fee. Information about this class is available at http://bio44.stanford.edu. Satisfies WIM in Biology.

BIO 60
Introduction to Problem Solving in Biology
WAY-SMA

Why is Lyme disease spreading? How does HIV become drug resistant? How do other animals affect our disease risk? In BIO 60 students will examine actual case studies to experience how different scientific approaches are used to battle infectious disease. They will evaluate information presented in the popular media and the scientific literature, and will directly participate in the scientific process through hands-on collection, documentation and analyses of authentic scientific data. Students will cultivate their scientific curiosity by discovering the natural world with a Foldscope, the `origami paper microscope¿ (https://microcosmos.foldscope.com). Students will build critical thinking skills by creating hypotheses, and designing experiments that pertain to problems in infectious disease. Students will work in teams to expand their thinking and will practice communicating science to different audiences.

BIO 60
Problem solving in infectious disease
WAY-SMA

Why is Lyme disease spreading? How does HIV become drug resistant? How do other animals affect our disease risk? In BIO 60 students will examine actual case studies to experience how different scientific approaches are used to battle infectious disease. They will evaluate information presented in the popular media and the scientific literature, and will directly participate in the scientific process through hands-on collection, documentation and analyses of authentic scientific data. Students will cultivate their scientific curiosity by discovering the natural world with a Foldscope, the `origami paper microscope¿ (https://microcosmos.foldscope.com). Students will build critical thinking skills by creating hypotheses, and designing experiments that pertain to problems in infectious disease. Students will work in teams to expand their thinking and will practice communicating science to different audiences.

BIO 61
Science as a Creative Process (APPPHYS 61)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

What is the process of science, and why does creativity matter? We'll delve deeply into the applicability of science in addressing a vast range of real-world problems. This course is designed to teach the scientific method as it's actually practiced by working scientists. It will cover how to ask a well-posed question, how to design a good experiment, how to collect and interpret quantitative data, how to recover from error, and how to communicate findings. Facts matter! Course topics will include experimental design, statistics and statistical significance, formulating appropriate controls, modeling, peer review, and more. The course will incorporate a significant hands-on component featuring device fabrication, testing, and measurement. Among other "Dorm Science" activities, we'll be distributing Arduino microcontroller kits and electronic sensors, then use these items, along with other materials, to complete a variety of group and individual projects outside the classroom. The final course assignment will be to develop and write a scientific grant proposal to test a student-selected myth or scientific controversy. Although helpful, no prior experience with electronics or computer programming is required. Recommended for freshmen.

BIO 61
Science as a Creative Process (APPPHYS 61)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

What is the process of science, and why does creativity matter? We'll delve deeply into the applicability of science in addressing a vast range of real-world problems. This course is designed to teach the scientific method as it's actually practiced by working scientists. It will cover how to ask a well-posed question, how to design a good experiment, how to collect and interpret quantitative data, how to recover from error, and how to communicate findings. Facts matter! Course topics will include experimental design, statistics and statistical significance, formulating appropriate controls, modeling, peer review, and more. The course will incorporate a significant hands-on component featuring device fabrication, testing, and measurement. Among other "Dorm Science" activities, we'll be distributing Arduino microcontroller kits and electronic sensors, then use these items, along with other materials, to complete a variety of group and individual projects outside the classroom. The final course assignment will be to develop and write a scientific grant proposal to test a student-selected myth or scientific controversy. Although helpful, no prior experience with electronics or computer programming is required. Recommended for freshmen.

BIO 61
Science as a Creative Process (APPPHYS 61)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

What is the process of science, and why does creativity matter? We'll delve deeply into the applicability of science in addressing a vast range of real-world problems. This course is designed to teach the scientific method as it's actually practiced by working scientists. It will cover how to ask a well-posed question, how to design a good experiment, how to collect and interpret quantitative data, how to recover from error, and how to communicate findings. Facts matter! Course topics will include experimental design, statistics and statistical significance, formulating appropriate controls, modeling, peer review, and more. The course will incorporate a significant hands-on component featuring device fabrication, testing, and measurement. Among other "Dorm Science" activities, we'll be distributing Arduino microcontroller kits and electronic sensors, then use these items, along with other materials, to complete a variety of group and individual projects outside the classroom. The final course assignment will be to develop and write a scientific grant proposal to test a student-selected myth or scientific controversy. Although helpful, no prior experience with electronics or computer programming is required. Recommended for freshmen.

BIO 81
Introduction to Ecology
WAY-SMA

This course will introduce you to the first principles of the science of ecology, the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Prerequisites: None.

BIO 81
Introduction to Ecology
WAY-SMA

This course will introduce you to the first principles of the science of ecology, the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. Prerequisites: None.

BIO 82
Genetics
WAY-SMA

The focus of the course is on the basic mechanisms underlying the transmission of genetic information and on the use of genetic analysis to study biological and medical questions. Major topics will include: (1) the use of existing genetic variation in humans and other species to identify genes that play an important role in determining traits and disease-susceptibility, (2) the analysis of mutations in model organisms and their use in the investigation of biological processes and questions and (3) using genetic information for diagnosis and the potential for genetic manipulations to treat disease. Prerequisites: None, but BIO 83 is recommended.

BIO 82
Genetics
WAY-SMA

The focus of the course is on the basic mechanisms underlying the transmission of genetic information and on the use of genetic analysis to study biological and medical questions. Major topics will include: (1) the use of existing genetic variation in humans and other species to identify genes that play an important role in determining traits and disease-susceptibility, (2) the analysis of mutations in model organisms and their use in the investigation of biological processes and questions and (3) using genetic information for diagnosis and the potential for genetic manipulations to treat disease. Prerequisites: None.

BIO 82
Genetics
WAY-SMA

The focus of the course is on the basic mechanisms underlying the transmission of genetic information and on the use of genetic analysis to study biological and medical questions. Major topics will include: (1) the use of existing genetic variation in humans and other species to identify genes that play an important role in determining traits and disease-susceptibility, (2) the analysis of mutations in model organisms and their use in the investigation of biological processes and questions and (3) using genetic information for diagnosis and the potential for genetic manipulations to treat disease. Prerequisites: None.

BIO 83
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
WAY-SMA

Introduction to the molecular and biochemical basis of life. Lecture topics include the structure and function of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates, energy metabolism, signal transduction, epigenetics and DNA repair. The course will also consider how defects in these processes cause disease. Prerequisites: None.

BIO 83
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
WAY-SMA

Introduction to the molecular and biochemical basis of life. Lecture topics include the structure and function of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates, energy metabolism, signal transduction, epigenetics and DNA repair. The course will also consider how defects in these processes cause disease. Prerequisites: None.

BIO 84
Physiology
WAY-SMA

The fundamental concepts and systems of animal and plant physiology are the subject matter of this course. Prerequisites: None.

BIO 84
Physiology
WAY-SMA

The focus of Physiology is on understanding how organisms tackle the physical challenges of life on Earth. This course will provide an overview of animal and plant physiology and teach an understanding of how organisms maintain homeostasis, respond to environmental cues and coordinate behaviors across multiples tissues and organ systems. We will examine the structure and function of organs and organ systems and how those systems are controlled and regulated to maintain homeostasis. Control and regulation requires information as does the ability to respond to environmental stimuli, so we will give special consideration to hormonal and neural information systems. We will also be concerned with the interactions and integration of the activities of the different organ systems we study. Prerequisites: none.

BIO 84
Physiology
WAY-SMA

The focus of Physiology is on understanding how organisms tackle the physical challenges of life on Earth. This course will provide an overview of animal and plant physiology and teach an understanding of how organisms maintain homeostasis, respond to environmental cues and coordinate behaviors across multiples tissues and organ systems. We will examine the structure and function of organs and organ systems and how those systems are controlled and regulated to maintain homeostasis. Control and regulation requires information as does the ability to respond to environmental stimuli, so we will give special consideration to hormonal and neural information systems. We will also be concerned with the interactions and integration of the activities of the different organ systems we study. Prerequisites: none.

BIO 85
Evolution
WAY-SMA

Principles of evolution. Adaptation and natural selection. Darwin and the history of evolutionary thought. Population genetics, including genetic variation and mutation, and effects of migration, drift, linkage, and recombination. Evolutionary phenomena: developmental evolution, life history evolution, molecular evolution, sexual selection, social evolution, and speciation. Pattern and process in biological diversity. Case studies, including human evolution. Prerequisites: None. NOTE: Section enrollments will be handled on Canvas. Students will receive a message on how to sign up.

BIO 85
Evolution
WAY-SMA

Principles of evolution. Adaptation and natural selection. Darwin and the history of evolutionary thought. Population genetics, including genetic variation and mutation, and effects of migration, drift, linkage, and recombination. Evolutionary phenomena: developmental evolution, life history evolution, molecular evolution, sexual selection, social evolution, and speciation. Pattern and process in biological diversity. Case studies, including human evolution. Prerequisites: None. NOTE: Section enrollments will be handled on Canvas. Students will receive a message on how to sign up.

BIO 86
Cell Biology
WAY-SMA

This course will focus on the basic structures inside cells and how they execute cellular functions. Topics include organelles, membrane trafficking, the cytoskeleton, cell division, and signal transduction. Classic and recent primary literature will be incorporated into lectures with an emphasis on state of the art experimental approaches. Prerequisites: BIO 83 is highly recommended.

BIO 86
Cell Biology
WAY-SMA

This course will focus on the basic structures inside cells and how they execute cellular functions. Topics include organelles, membrane trafficking, the cytoskeleton, cell division, and signal transduction. Classic and recent primary literature will be incorporated into lectures with an emphasis on state of the art experimental approaches. Prerequisites: BIO 83 is highly recommended.

BIO 8N
Human Origins
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

A survey of the anatomical and behavioral evidence for human evolution and of the increasingly important information from molecular genetics. Emphasis on the split between the human and chimpanzee lines 6-7 million years ago, the appearance of the australopiths by 4.1 million years ago, the emergence of the genus Homo about 2.5 million years ago, the spread of Homo from Africa 1.7-1.6 million years ago, the subsequent divergence of Homo into different species on different continents, and the expansion of fully modern humans (Homo sapiens) from Africa about 50,000 years ago to replace the Neanderthals and other non-modern Eurasians.

BIO 8N
Human Origins
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

A survey of the anatomical and behavioral evidence for human evolution and of the increasingly important information from molecular genetics. Emphasis on the split between the human and chimpanzee lines 6-7 million years ago, the appearance of the australopiths by 4.1 million years ago, the emergence of the genus Homo about 2.5 million years ago, the spread of Homo from Africa 1.7-1.6 million years ago, the subsequent divergence of Homo into different species on different continents, and the expansion of fully modern humans (Homo sapiens) from Africa about 50,000 years ago to replace the Neanderthals and other non-modern Eurasians.

BIO 8N
Human Origins
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

A survey of the anatomical and behavioral evidence for human evolution and of the increasingly important information from molecular genetics. Emphasis on the split between the human and chimpanzee lines 6-7 million years ago, the appearance of the australopiths by 4.1 million years ago, the emergence of the genus Homo about 2.5 million years ago, the spread of Homo from Africa 1.7-1.6 million years ago, the subsequent divergence of Homo into different species on different continents, and the expansion of fully modern humans (Homo sapiens) from Africa about 50,000 years ago to replace the Neanderthals and other non-modern Eurasians.

BIO 8N
Human Origins
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

A survey of the anatomical and behavioral evidence for human evolution and of the increasingly important information from molecular genetics. Emphasis on the split between the human and chimpanzee lines 6-7 million years ago, the appearance of the australopiths by 4.1 million years ago, the emergence of the genus Homo about 2.5 million years ago, the spread of Homo from Africa 1.7-1.6 million years ago, the subsequent divergence of Homo into different species on different continents, and the expansion of fully modern humans (Homo sapiens) from Africa about 50,000 years ago to replace the Neanderthals and other non-modern Eurasians.

BIOC 109A
Building Blocks for Chronic Disease (BIO 109A, BIOC 209A, HUMBIO 158)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Researchers have come a long way in developing therapies for chronic disease but a gap remains between current solutions and the ability to address the disease in full. This course provides an overview to the underlying biology of many of these diseases and how they may connect to each other. A "think outside of the box" approach to drug discovery is needed to bridge such a gap in solutions, and this course teaches the building blocks for that approach. Could Legoland provide the answer? This is a guest lecture series with original contributions from prominent thought leaders in academia and industry. Interaction between students and guest lecturers is expected. Students with a major, minor or coterm in Biology: 109A/209A or 109B/209B may count toward degree program but not both.

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