Explore Scientific Method and Analysis (SMA) WAYS Courses

Ways of Thinking/Ways of Doing

Title Requirements
EARTH 42
Landscapes and Tectonics of the San Francisco Bay Area (GEOLSCI 42)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Active faulting and erosion in the Bay Area, and its effects upon landscapes. Earth science concepts and skills through investigation of the valley, mountain, and coastal areas around Stanford. Faulting associated with the San Andreas Fault, coastal processes along the San Mateo coast, uplift of the mountains by plate tectonic processes, and landsliding in urban and mountainous areas. Field excursions; student projects.

EARTH 42
Landscapes and Tectonics of the San Francisco Bay Area (GEOLSCI 42)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Active faulting and erosion in the Bay Area, and its effects upon landscapes. Earth science concepts and skills through investigation of the valley, mountain, and coastal areas around Stanford. Faulting associated with the San Andreas Fault, coastal processes along the San Mateo coast, uplift of the mountains by plate tectonic processes, and landsliding in urban and mountainous areas. Field excursions; student projects.

EARTHSYS 10
Introduction to Earth Systems
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

For non-majors and prospective Earth Systems majors. Multidisciplinary approach using the principles of geology, biology, engineering, and economics to describe how the Earth operates as an interconnected, integrated system. Goal is to understand global change on all time scales. Focus is on sciences, technological principles, and sociopolitical approaches applied to solid earth, oceans, water, energy, and food and population. Case studies: environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, and resource sustainability.

EARTHSYS 10
Introduction to Earth Systems
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

For non-majors and prospective Earth Systems majors. Multidisciplinary approach using the principles of geology, biology, engineering, and economics to describe how the Earth operates as an interconnected, integrated system. Goal is to understand global change on all time scales. Focus is on sciences, technological principles, and sociopolitical approaches applied to solid earth, oceans, water, energy, and food and population. Case studies: environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, and resource sustainability.

EARTHSYS 10
Introduction to Earth Systems
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

For non-majors and prospective Earth Systems majors. Multidisciplinary approach using the principles of geology, biology, engineering, and economics to describe how the Earth operates as an interconnected, integrated system. Goal is to understand global change on all time scales. Focus is on sciences, technological principles, and sociopolitical approaches applied to solid earth, oceans, water, energy, and food and population. Case studies: environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, and resource sustainability.

EARTHSYS 101
Energy and the Environment (ENERGY 101)
GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Energy use in modern society and the consequences of current and future energy use patterns. Case studies illustrate resource estimation, engineering analysis of energy systems, and options for managing carbon emissions. Focus is on energy definitions, use patterns, resource estimation, pollution. Recommended: MATH 21 or 42.

EARTHSYS 101
Energy and the Environment (ENERGY 101)
GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Energy use in modern society and the consequences of current and future energy use patterns. Case studies illustrate resource estimation, engineering analysis of energy systems, and options for managing carbon emissions. Focus is on energy definitions, use patterns, resource estimation, pollution. Recommended: MATH 21 or 42.

EARTHSYS 101
Energy and the Environment (ENERGY 101)
GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Energy use in modern society and the consequences of current and future energy use patterns. Case studies illustrate resource estimation, engineering analysis of energy systems, and options for managing carbon emissions. Focus is on energy definitions, use patterns, resource estimation, pollution. Recommended: MATH 21 or 42.

EARTHSYS 102
Fundamentals of Renewable Power (ENERGY 102)
GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA

Do you want a much better understanding of renewable power technologies? Did you know that wind and solar are the fastest growing forms of electricity generation? Are you interested in hearing about the most recent, and future, designs for green power? Do you want to understand what limits power extraction from renewable resources and how current designs could be improved? This course dives deep into these and related issues for wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, tidal and wave power technologies. We welcome all student, from non-majors to MBAs and grad students. If you are potentially interested in an energy or environmental related major, this course is particularly useful. Recommended: Math 21 or 42.

EARTHSYS 102
Fundamentals of Renewable Power (ENERGY 102)
GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA

Do you want a much better understanding of renewable power technologies? Did you know that wind and solar are the fastest growing forms of electricity generation? Are you interested in hearing about the most recent, and future, designs for green power? Do you want to understand what limits power extraction from renewable resources and how current designs could be improved? This course dives deep into these and related issues for wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, tidal and wave power technologies. We welcome all student, from non-majors to MBAs and grad students. If you are potentially interested in an energy or environmental related major, this course is particularly useful. Recommended: Math 21 or 42.

EARTHSYS 102
Fundamentals of Renewable Power (ENERGY 102)
GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-SMA

Do you want a much better understanding of renewable power technologies? Did you know that wind and solar are the fastest growing forms of electricity generation? Are you interested in hearing about the most recent, and future, designs for green power? Do you want to understand what limits power extraction from renewable resources and how current designs could be improved? This course dives deep into these and related issues for wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, tidal and wave power technologies. We welcome all student, from non-majors to MBAs and grad students. If you are potentially interested in an energy or environmental related major, this course is particularly useful. Recommended: Math 21 or 42.

EARTHSYS 104
The Water Course (EARTHSYS 204, GEOPHYS 104, GEOPHYS 204)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

The Central Valley of California provides a third of the produce grown in the U.S., but recent droughts and increasing demand have raised concerns about both food and water security. The pathway that water takes from rainfall to the irrigation of fields or household taps (¿the water course¿) determines the quantity and quality of the available water. Working with various data sources (measurements made on the ground, in wells, and from satellites) allows us to model the water budget in the valley and explore the recent impacts on freshwater supplies.

EARTHSYS 104
The Water Course (GEOPHYS 70)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

The Central Valley of California provides a third of the produce grown in the U.S., but has a desert climate, thus raising concerns about both food and water security. The pathway that water takes rainfall to the irrigation of fields (the water course) determines the quantity and quality of the available water. Working with various data sources (remote sensing, gauges, wells) allows us to model the water budget in the valley and explore the way in which recent droughts and increasing demand are impacting freshwater supplies.

EARTHSYS 104
The Water Course (EARTHSYS 204, GEOPHYS 104, GEOPHYS 204)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

The Central Valley of California provides a third of the produce grown in the U.S., but recent droughts and increasing demand have raised concerns about both food and water security. The pathway that water takes from rainfall to the irrigation of fields or household taps (¿the water course¿) determines the quantity and quality of the available water. Working with various data sources (measurements made on the ground, in wells, and from satellites) allows us to model the water budget in the valley and explore the recent impacts on freshwater supplies.

EARTHSYS 11
Introduction to Geology (GEOLSCI 1)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Why are earthquakes, volcanoes, and natural resources located at specific spots on the Earth surface? Why are there rolling hills to the west behind Stanford, and soaring granite walls to the east in Yosemite? What was the Earth like in the past, and what will it be like in the future? Lectures, hands-on laboratories, in-class activities, and one field trip will help you see the Earth through the eyes of a geologist. Topics include plate tectonics, the cycling and formation of different types of rocks, and how geologists use rocks to understand Earth's history.

EARTHSYS 11
Introduction to Geology (GEOLSCI 1)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Why are earthquakes, volcanoes, and natural resources located at specific spots on the Earth surface? Why are there rolling hills to the west behind Stanford, and soaring granite walls to the east in Yosemite? What was the Earth like in the past, and what will it be like in the future? Lectures, hands-on laboratories, in-class activities, and one field trip will help you see the Earth through the eyes of a geologist. Topics include plate tectonics, the cycling and formation of different types of rocks, and how geologists use rocks to understand Earth's history.

EARTHSYS 11
Introduction to Geology (GS 1)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Why are earthquakes, volcanoes, and natural resources located at specific spots on the Earth surface? Why are there rolling hills to the west behind Stanford, and soaring granite walls to the east in Yosemite? What was the Earth like in the past, and what will it be like in the future? Lectures, hands-on laboratories, in-class activities, and one field trip will help you see the Earth through the eyes of a geologist. Topics include plate tectonics, the cycling and formation of different types of rocks, and how geologists use rocks to understand Earth's history.

EARTHSYS 110
Introduction to the Foundations of Contemporary Geophysics (GEOPHYS 110)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics. Topics drawn from broad themes in: whole Earth geodynamics, geohazards, natural resources, and environment. In each case the focus is on how the interpretation of a variety of geophysical measurements (e.g., gravity, seismology, heat flow, electromagnetics, and remote sensing) can be used to provide fundamental insight into the behavior of the Earth. The course will include a weekend field trip. Prerequisite: CME 100 or MATH 51, or co-registration in either.

EARTHSYS 110
Introduction to the Foundations of Contemporary Geophysics (GEOPHYS 110)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Introduction to the foundations of contemporary geophysics. Topics drawn from broad themes in: whole Earth geodynamics, geohazards, natural resources, and enviroment. In each case the focus is on how the interpretation of a variety of geophysical measurements (e.g., gravity, seismology, heat flow, electromagnetics, and remote sensing) can be used to provide fundamental insight into the behavior of the Earth. The course will include a weekend field trip. Prerequisite: CME 100 or MA TH 51, or co-registration in either.

EARTHSYS 111
Biology and Global Change (BIO 117, EARTHSYS 217, ESS 111)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or BIO 81 or graduate standing.

EARTHSYS 111
Biology and Global Change (BIO 117, ESS 111)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or graduate standing.

EARTHSYS 111
Biology and Global Change (BIO 117, ESS 111)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

The biological causes and consequences of anthropogenic and natural changes in the atmosphere, oceans, and terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Topics: glacial cycles and marine circulation, greenhouse gases and climate change, tropical deforestation and species extinctions, and human population growth and resource use. Prerequisite: Biology or Human Biology core or BIO 81 or graduate standing.

EARTHSYS 113
Earthquakes and Volcanoes (GEOPHYS 90)
GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Is the "Big One" overdue in California? What kind of damage would that cause? What can we do to reduce the impact of such hazards in urban environments? Does "fracking" cause earthquakes and are we at risk? Is the United States vulnerable to a giant tsunami? The geologic record contains evidence of volcanic super eruptions throughout Earth's history. What causes these gigantic explosive eruptions, and can they be predicted in the future? This course will address these and related issues. For non-majors and potential Earth scientists. No prerequisites. More information at: https://stanford.box.com/s/zr8ar28efmuo5wtlj6gj2jbxle76r4lu

EARTHSYS 113
Earthquakes and Volcanoes (GEOPHYS 90)
GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Is the "Big One" overdue in California? What kind of damage would that cause? What can we do to reduce the impact of such hazards in urban environments? Does "fracking" cause earthquakes and are we at risk? Is the United States vulnerable to a giant tsunami? The geologic record contains evidence of volcanic super eruptions throughout Earth's history. What causes these gigantic explosive eruptions, and can they be predicted in the future? This course will address these and related issues. For non-majors and potential Earth scientists. No prerequisites. More information at: https://stanford.box.com/s/zr8ar28efmuo5wtlj6gj2jbxle76r4lu

EARTHSYS 113
Earthquakes and Volcanoes (GEOPHYS 90)
GER:DB-EngrAppSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Is the "Big One" overdue in California? What kind of damage would that cause? What can we do to reduce the impact of such hazards in urban environments? Does "fracking" cause earthquakes and are we at risk? Is the United States vulnerable to a giant tsunami? The geologic record contains evidence of volcanic super eruptions throughout Earth's history. What causes these gigantic explosive eruptions, and can they be predicted in the future? This course will address these and related issues. For non-majors and potential Earth scientists. No prerequisites. More information at: https://stanford.box.com/s/zr8ar28efmuo5wtlj6gj2jbxle76r4lu

EARTHSYS 114
Global Change and Emerging Infectious Disease (EARTHSYS 214, ESS 213, HUMBIO 114)
GER:DB-SocSci, WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

The changing epidemiological environment. How human-induced environmental changes, such as global warming, deforestation and land-use conversion, urbanization, international commerce, and human migration, are altering the ecology of infectious disease transmission, and promoting their re-emergence as a global public health threat. Case studies of malaria, cholera, hantavirus, plague, and HIV.

EARTHSYS 117
Earth Sciences of the Hawaiian Islands (EARTH 117, ESS 117)
WAY-SMA

Progression from volcanic processes through rock weathering and soil-ecosystem development to landscape evolution. The course starts with an investigation of volcanic processes, including the volcano structure, origin of magmas, physical-chemical factors of eruptions. Factors controlling rock weathering and soil development, including depth and nutrient levels impacting plant ecosystems, are explored next. Geomorphic processes of landscape evolution including erosion rates, tectonic/volcanic activity, and hillslope stability conclude the course. Methods for monitoring and predicting eruptions, defining spatial changes in landform, landform stability, soil production rates, and measuring biogeochemical processes are covered throughout the course. This course is restricted to students accepted into the Earth Systems of Hawaii Program.

EARTHSYS 124
Measurements in Earth Systems (ESS 212)
WAY-SMA

A classroom, laboratory, and field class designed to provide students familiarity with techniques and instrumentation used to track biological, chemical, and physical processes operating in earth systems, encompassing upland, aquatic, estuarine, and marine environments. Topics include gas and water flux measurement, nutrient and isotopic analysis, soil and water chemistry determination. Students will develop and test hypotheses, provide scientific evidence and analysis, culminating in a final presentation.

EARTHSYS 124
Measurements in Earth Systems (ESS 212)
WAY-SMA

A classroom, laboratory, and field class designed to provide students familiarity with techniques and instrumentation used to track biological, chemical, and physical processes operating in earth systems, encompassing upland, aquatic, estuarine, and marine environments. Topics include gas and water flux measurement, nutrient and isotopic analysis, soil and water chemistry determination. Students will develop and test hypotheses, provide scientific evidence and analysis, culminating in a final presentation.

EARTHSYS 128
Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems (GS 128, GS 228)
WAY-SMA

The what, when, where, and how do we know it regarding life on land through time. Fossil plants, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates (yes, dinosaurs) are all covered, including how all of those components interact with each other and with changing climates, continental drift, atmospheric composition, and environmental perturbations like glaciation and mass extinction. The course involves both lecture and lab components. Graduate students registering at the 200-level are expected to write a term paper, but can opt out of some labs where appropriate.

EARTHSYS 128
Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems (GEOLSCI 128, GEOLSCI 228)
WAY-SMA

The what, when, where, and how do we know it regarding life on land through time. Fossil plants, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates (yes, dinosaurs) are all covered, including how all of those components interact with each other and with changing climates, continental drift, atmospheric composition, and environmental perturbations like glaciation and mass extinction. The course involves both lecture and lab components. Graduate students registering at the 200-level are expected to write a term paper, but can opt out of some labs where appropriate.

EARTHSYS 143
Molecular Geomicrobiology Laboratory (BIO 142, ESS 143, ESS 243)
WAY-SMA

In this course, students will be studying the biosynthesis of cyclic lipid biomarkers, molecules that are produced by modern microbes that can be preserved in rocks that are over a billion years old and which geologist use as molecular fossils. Students will be tasked with identifying potential biomarker lipid synthesis genes in environmental genomic databases, expressing those genes in a model bacterial expression system in the lab, and then analyzing the lipid products that are produced. The overall goal is for students to experience the scientific research process including generating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in laboratory experiments, and communicating their results through a publication style paper. Prerequisites: BIO83 and CHEM35 or permission of the instructor.

EARTHSYS 143
Molecular Geomicrobiology Laboratory (BIO 142, ESS 143, ESS 243)
WAY-SMA

In this course, students will be studying the biosynthesis of cyclic lipid biomarkers, molecules that are produced by modern microbes that can be preserved in rocks that are over a billion years old and which geologist use as molecular fossils. Students will be tasked with identifying potential biomarker lipid synthesis genes in environmental genomic databases, expressing those genes in a model bacterial expression system in the lab, and then analyzing the lipid products that are produced. The overall goal is for students to experience the scientific research process including generating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in laboratory experiments, and communicating their results through a publication style paper. Prerequisites: BIO83 and CHEM35 or permission of the instructor.

EARTHSYS 143
Molecular Geomicrobiology Laboratory (BIO 142, ESS 143, ESS 243)
WAY-SMA

In this course, students will be studying the biosynthesis of cyclic lipid biomarkers, molecules that are produced by modern microbes that can be preserved in rocks that are over a billion years old and which geologist use as molecular fossils. Students will be tasked with identifying potential biomarker lipid synthesis genes in environmental genomic databases, expressing those genes in a model bacterial expression system in the lab, and then analyzing the lipid products that are produced. The overall goal is for students to experience the scientific research process including generating hypotheses, testing these hypotheses in laboratory experiments, and communicating their results through a publication style paper. Prerequisites: BIO83 and CHEM35 or permission of the instructor.

EARTHSYS 151
Biological Oceanography (EARTHSYS 251, ESS 151, ESS 251)
WAY-SMA

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (ESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and ESS 8 or equivalent.

EARTHSYS 151
Biological Oceanography (EARTHSYS 251, ESS 151, ESS 251)
WAY-SMA

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (ESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and ESS 8 or equivalent.

EARTHSYS 151
Biological Oceanography (EARTHSYS 251, ESS 151, ESS 251)
WAY-SMA

Required for Earth Systems students in the oceans track. Interdisciplinary look at how oceanic environments control the form and function of marine life. Topics include distributions of planktonic production and abundance, nutrient cycling, the role of ocean biology in the climate system, expected effects of climate changes on ocean biology. Local weekend field trips. Designed to be taken concurrently with Marine Chemistry (ESS/EARTHSYS 152/252). Prerequisites: BIO 43 and ESS 8 or equivalent.

EARTHSYS 152
Marine Chemistry (EARTHSYS 252, ESS 152, ESS 252)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (ESS/EARTHSYS 151/251)

EARTHSYS 152
Marine Chemistry (EARTHSYS 252, ESS 152, ESS 252)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (ESS/EARTHSYS 151/251)

EARTHSYS 152
Marine Chemistry (EARTHSYS 252, ESS 152, ESS 252)
WAY-AQR, WAY-SMA

Introduction to the interdisciplinary knowledge and skills required to critically evaluate problems in marine chemistry and related disciplines. Physical, chemical, and biological processes that determine the chemical composition of seawater. Air-sea gas exchange, carbonate chemistry, and chemical equilibria, nutrient and trace element cycling, particle reactivity, sediment chemistry, and diagenesis. Examination of chemical tracers of mixing and circulation and feedbacks of ocean processes on atmospheric chemistry and climate. Designed to be taken concurrently with Biological Oceanography (ESS/EARTHSYS 151/251)

EARTHSYS 155
Science of Soils (ESS 155)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Physical, chemical, and biological processes within soil systems. Emphasis is on factors governing nutrient availability, plant growth and production, land-resource management, and pollution within soils. How to classify soils and assess nutrient cycling and contaminant fate. Recommended: introductory chemistry and biology.

EARTHSYS 155
Science of Soils (ESS 155)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Physical, chemical, and biological processes within soil systems. Emphasis is on factors governing nutrient availability, plant growth and production, land-resource management, and pollution within soils. How to classify soils and assess nutrient cycling and contaminant fate. Recommended: introductory chemistry and biology.

EARTHSYS 155
Science of Soils (ESS 155)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Physical, chemical, and biological processes within soil systems. Emphasis is on factors governing nutrient availability, plant growth and production, land-resource management, and pollution within soils. How to classify soils and assess nutrient cycling and contaminant fate. Recommended: introductory chemistry and biology.

EARTHSYS 155
Science of Soils (ESS 155)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Physical, chemical, and biological processes within soil systems. Emphasis is on factors governing nutrient availability, plant growth and production, land-resource management, and pollution within soils. How to classify soils and assess nutrient cycling and contaminant fate. Recommended: introductory chemistry and biology.

EARTHSYS 180
Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture (ESS 280)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Field-based training in ecologically sound agricultural practices at the Stanford Community Farm. Weekly lessons, field work, and group projects. Field trips to educational farms in the area. Topics include: soils, composting, irrigation techniques, IPM, basic plant anatomy and physiology, weeds, greenhouse management, and marketing. Application required. Deadline: September 12 for Autumn and March 10 for Spring. nnApplication: https://stanforduniversity.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_0ANZWrjlz0SbhxX

EARTHSYS 180
Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture (ESS 280)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Field-based training in ecologically sound agricultural practices at the Stanford Community Farm. Weekly lessons, field work, and group projects. Field trips to educational farms in the area. Topics include: soils, composting, irrigation techniques, IPM, basic plant anatomy and physiology, weeds, greenhouse management, and marketing. Application required. Deadline: September 10 for Autumn and March 10 for Spring. nnApplication: https://stanforduniversity.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_244JnBoEP7zs8Dz

EARTHSYS 180
Principles and Practices of Sustainable Agriculture (ESS 280)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Field-based training in ecologically sound agricultural practices at the Stanford Community Farm. Weekly lessons, field work, and group projects. Field trips to educational farms in the area. Topics include: soils, composting, irrigation techniques, IPM, basic plant anatomy and physiology, weeds, greenhouse management, and marketing. Application required. Deadline: March 14 nnApplication: https://stanforduniversity.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_bdBA34jEZxifdjf

EARTHSYS 323
Stanford at Sea (BIOHOPK 182H, BIOHOPK 323H, ESS 323)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

(Graduate students register for 323H.) Five weeks of marine science including oceanography, marine physiology, policy, maritime studies, conservation, and nautical science at Hopkins Marine Station, followed by five weeks at sea aboard a sailing research vessel in the Pacific Ocean. Shore component comprised of three multidisciplinary courses meeting daily and continuing aboard ship. Students develop an independent research project plan while ashore, and carry out the research at sea. In collaboration with the Sea Education Association of Woods Hole, MA. Only 6 units may count towards the Biology major.

EARTHSYS 4
Coevolution of Earth and Life (GEOLSCI 4)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Earth is the only planet in the universe currently known to harbor life. When and how did Earth become inhabited? How have biological activities altered the planet? How have environmental changes affected the evolution of life? Are we living in a sixth mass extinction? In this course, we will develop and use the tools of geology, paleontology, geochemistry, and modeling that allow us to reconstruct Earth's 4.5 billion year history and to reconstruct the interactions between life and its host planet over the past 4 billion years. We will also ask what this long history can tell us about life's likely future on Earth. We will also use One half-day field trip.

EARTHSYS 4
Coevolution of Earth and Life (GEOLSCI 4)
GER: DB-NatSci, WAY-SMA

Earth is the only planet in the universe currently known to harbor life. When and how did Earth become inhabited? How have biological activities altered the planet? How have environmental changes affected the evolution of life? Are we living in a sixth mass extinction? In this course, we will develop and use the tools of geology, paleontology, geochemistry, and modeling that allow us to reconstruct Earth's 4.5 billion year history and to reconstruct the interactions between life and its host planet over the past 4 billion years. We will also ask what this long history can tell us about life's likely future on Earth. We will also use One half-day field trip.

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